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Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles

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Electriication is an evolving paradigm shift in the transportation industry toward more eficient, higher performance, safer, smarter, and more reliable vehicles. There is in fact a clear trend to shift from internal combustion engines (ICEs) to more integrated electriied powertrains. Nonpropulsion loads, such as power steering and air-conditioning systems, are also being electriied. Electriied vehicles include more electric vehicles (MEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), range-extended electric vehicles (REEV s), and all electric vehicles (EVs) including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs ). 
This book begins with an introduction to the automotive industry and explains the need for electriication in Chapter 1. Parallels with other industries such as the telecommunications industry are highlighted. Chapter 1 also explains how the paradigm shift began with MEVs, was established by HEVs, is gaining momentum by PHEVs and REEVs, and will be completed by EVs.
 Chapters 2 and 3 present the fundamentals of conventional vehicles and ICEs, respectively. Chapters 4 through 7 focus on the major components of electriied vehicles including power electronic converters, electric machines, electric motor controllers, and energy storage systems. Chapter 8 introduces hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage systems with applications in advanced electric drive vehicles. Chapter 9 presents the electriication technologies applied to nonpropulsion loads with low- voltage electrical systems. 48 V electriication and belt-driven starter generator systems are explained in Chapter 10, while Chapters 11 and 12 introduce the fundamentals of hybrid powertrains and HEVs, respectively. 
Chapter 13 is then focused on chargers needed for plug-in vehicles. PHEVs are studied in Chapter 14. EVs and REEVs are described in Chapter 15. In addition, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interface and electrical infrastructure issues are presented in Chapter 16. Finally, Chapter 17 deals with energy management and optimization in advanced electric drive vehicles. This book is planned as a comprehensive textbook covering major aspects of advanced electric drive vehicles for a graduate or senior-level undergraduate course in engineering. 
Each chapter includes various illustrations, practical examples, and case studies.
 This book is also an easy-tofollow reference on electriied vehicles for engineers, managers, students, researchers, and other professionals who are interested in transportation electriication. I would like to acknowledge the efforts and assistance of the staff of Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, especially Ms. Nora Konopka, Ms. Jessica Vakili, and Ms. Michele Smith. I would also like to thank Mr. Weisheng Jiang for his kind efforts in preparing many of the illustrations in this book .
Vehicles constitute the crucial components of modern industrial life. The ubiquity of cars, vans, sports utility vehicles (SUVs), and trucks for personal and industrial transportation today is the result of an industrial revolution that began in Europe and North America in the nineteenth century—a revolution that privileged the use of internal combustion engines (ICEs) as the primary means of motive power. 
Yet, the twentieth century witnessed the rise of serious environmental, economic, and social concerns related to greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ICE-powered transportation. These concerns reshaped the manufacturing landscape, forcing automotive manufacturers to rethink the way they designed automobiles.
 They also recalibrated consumer and public expectations of eficiency and sustainability in transportation overall. A new “sustainability” mantra is emerging as the pre-eminent metric of transportation technologies. This chapter has been prepared with one overarching principle in mind - the electriication of transportation is the primary means by which we can ensure the automotive industry becomes “sustainable” over the next half-century. 
This globally sustainable transportation system, which is electriied, is what we call Transportation 2.0 (Emadi 2011).
 Transportation 2.0 describes a world in which profound technological shifts in advanced electric drive vehicles and transportation networks reshape the automotive industry, focusing its attention on the most eficient source of motive power namely, electricity. Companies will seek to ensure that these new technologies are scalable, marketable, and proitable, while consumers will increasingly demand electric drive vehicles, which are low-cost, low maintenance, safe, secure, reliable, rugged, and eco-friendly.
Achieving these varied outcomes will require industrial and academic investment in hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and fully electric power trains, including the development of superior electric motors, power electronics and controllers, embedded software, batteries and energy-storage devices, and micro-and smart grid interface systems. It will also require highly skilled workers who understand the theoretical and practical aspects of these advanced electric drive vehicles to guide automotive companies over the next few decades of innovation.
 This introductory chapter presents readers with an overview of the innovations that have informed the development of advanced electric drive vehicles over the past century and it points to innovative pathways for the future.
 First, we begin with a brief historical review of the automotive technologies that formed the Transportation 1.0 paradigm throughout the twentieth century. We present the concept of “sustainability” as a core concept embodied in the Transportation 2.0 paradigm—a worldview that incorporates a radical shift toward advanced electric drive vehicles and electriied transportation. 
Then, we explore disruptive technologies already shaping industrial trends in transportation electriication, including the continuum of more electric vehicles (MEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs). Finally, we explore future technologies associated with power electronics and controllers, electric machines, batteries and ultra-capacitors, and electrical grid innovations—all of which will enable the development of improved electric drive vehicles throughout the twenty-irst century