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large scale solar power systems

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This book is a comprehensive discussion and economic analysis of large-scale solar power systems, specifically referencing critical issues related to design construction and financing. The book provides practical design, installation, and  financing  guidelines  for  large-scale  commercial  and  industrial  solar power projects.

Engineering design and construction methodologies as well as economic analysis provide a step-by-step walk-through of all aspects of solar power systems. Design methodologies outline the specific requirements of solar and electrical design and construction documentation in meticulous detail, which can readily be applied to ground mount, roof mount, building integrated  (BIPV),  and  carport-type  solar  power  projects.  In  view  of  the importance  of  solar  power  systems  as  a  viable  present  and  future  energy resource, the book includes a dedicated chapter on smart grid transmission and large-scale energy storage systems.

Ever since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have constantly changed the natural  composition  of  Earth’s  atmosphere.  Concentrations  of  trace  atmospheric gases,  nowadays  termed  “greenhouse  gases,”  are  increasing  at  an  alarming  rate. There is conclusive evidence that the consumption of fossil fuels, the conversion of forests to agricultural land, and the emission of industrial chemicals are the principal contributing factors to air pollution. 

According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth’s surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming occurring in the past three decades.

 According to statistical reviews of the atmospheric and climatic records there is substantial evidence that global warming over the past 50 years is directly attributable to human activities. Under normal atmospheric conditions, energy from the Sun controls the Earth’s weather and climate patterns. Heating of the Earth’s surface resulting from the Sun radiates energy back into space. Atmospheric greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2O), troposphere ozone (O3 ), and water vapor (H2 O), trap some of this outgoing energy, retaining it in the form of heat, somewhat like a glass dome.

 This process is referred to as the GREENHOUSE EFFECT. Without  the  Greenhouse  Effect,  the  Earth’s  surface  temperature  would  be roughly 30 degrees Celsius (54 degrees Fahrenheit) cooler than it is today – too cold to support life. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is dependent on a reduction in the amount of fossil fuel–fired energy that we produce and consume. Fossil  fuels  include  coal,  petroleum,  and  natural  gas,  all  of  which  are  used  to fuel electric power generation and transportation. 

Substantial increases in the use of nonrenewable fuels have been a principal factor in the rapid increase in global greenhouse  gas  emissions. The  use  of  renewable  fuels  can  be  extended  to  power industrial,  commercial,  residential,  and  transportation  applications  to  reduce  air pollution substantially.

 Examples  of  zero-emission  renewable  fuels  include  solar,  wind,  geothermal, and renewably powered fuel cells. These fuel types, in conjunction with advances in  energy-efficient  equipment  design  and  sophisticated  energy  management techniques, can reduce the risk of climate change and the resulting harmful effects on ecosystems. It should be kept in mind that natural greenhouse gases are a necessary.

part of sustaining life on Earth. It is the anthropogenic, or human-caused, increase in greenhouse gases that is of concern to the international scientific community and governments around the world. Since  the  beginning  of  the  modern  Industrial  Revolution,  atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased nearly 30%, methane concentrations have  more  than  doubled,  and  nitrous  oxide  concentrations  have  risen  by  about 15%. 

These increases in greenhouse gas emissions have enhanced the heat-trapping capability of Earth’s atmosphere. Fossil  fuels  that  are  burned  to  operate  electric  power  plants,  run  cars  and trucks, and heat homes and businesses are responsible for about 98% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, 24% of U.S. methane emissions, and 18% of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions. Increased deforestation, landfills, large agricultural production, industrial production, and mining also contribute a significant share of emissions. 

In 2000, the United States produced about 25% of total global greenhouse gas emissions, the largest contribution by any country in the world. Estimating future emissions depends on demographic, economic, technological, policy,  and  institutional  developments.  Several  emissions  scenarios  based  on differing projections of these underlying factors have been developed. 

It is estimated that by the year 2100, in the absence of emission control policies, carbon dioxide concentrations will be about 30–150% higher than they are today