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Oil and Gas Pipelines and Piping Systems

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In designing the pipeline and its associated piping systems, due account should be given to the operation, inspection, and maintenance requirements for the predicted life cycle and the planned conditions and criteria for the operation and maintenance of the pipeline. Due regard should also be given to manning levels, pipeline condition monitoring, and maintenance system, remote operations, communications, means of access to the right-of-way, bypass requirements for components needing regular maintenance without interruption of the pipeline operation, etc. Moreover, the materials engineer shall establish the preferred materials selection based on the process requirements such as medium, pressure, temperature, flow, and the environment of the process facility. Design life and cost considerations shall also be taken into account in this respect. This book covers essential requirements for all aspects to be considered in design of piping for oil, gas, and petrochemical plants to be designed, which includes, but is not limited to, the following: 

1. Loading and unloading terminals.

 2. Crude oil and gas gathering central facilities.

 3. Process units.

 4. Package equipment.

 5. Pump house and compressor stations (booster stations).

 6. Tank farms and oil/gas depots. 

This book outlines requirements for the procedure in handing over, loading, hauling, unloading, keeping an inventory list, and the storing of materials required for installation of pipelines.

 This book also covers requirements for trenching operations for buried pipelines. It explains conditions of trench before pipe is laid, conditions under which blasting can be performed, staking, and the marking and use of excavated materials. This book also covers requirements to be observed in clearing a right-ofway and trenching operation in terrains containing natural rock, large boulders, or other materials that have to be removed by a blasting operation.

This book also deals with manners to be considered in taking pipes from stockpile and stringing along a right-of-way for subsequent welding, coating, lowering, and backfilling. Moreover, this book covers checking to be made in respect of cleaning of pipe ends and interior of pipes as well as pipe condition. 

It also emphasizes the necessity of repair before lining up pipe and welding into a string. It covers requirements for cold field bending. It describes limits to be observed in field bending in terms of minimum bend radius as well as maximum stretching or thinning of the pipe wall thickness. In addition, this book covers technical requirements for welding of pipe over the ditch and double-jointing yard as well as laying pipe in trench, exposed, and casing sections. 

The requirements include complementary trenching works, considerations to be given in laying pipe when trench contains water or mud, and test of pipe coating just before laying. This book also covers the requirements for backfilling of buried lines that are carried out immediately after a lowering operation and before hydrostatic testing. It explains how to check important features before performing backfilling operation, the quality of backfill material, and considerations to be given at crossings with waterways, roads, and irrigated lands.

 This book covers clean up and restoration activities that need to be performed immediately after the pipe is backfilled. This book outlines specific considerations to be given in the construction of pipelines at crossings. It deals with surveys required to be carried out before giving schedules and timing for work execution at crossings. 

This book also covers requirements for installation of casings for correct insertion of carrier pipe where pipeline crosses major public roads, freeways, and railways.

 It also explains boring methods for installation of casings in order to obviate interruption of traffic, test and installation of fabricated assemblies, such as launchers and receivers, line break valves, isolated valves, vent, and drain valves. 

This book gives technical specifications and minimum requirements for welding of transportation pipeline and related facilities for use in oil, gas, and petrochemical industries, the arc welding of butt, fillet, and socket welds in carbon and low alloy steel for liquid and gas transmission pipelines, and related facilities, including pig traps. 

The welds may be produced by position or roll welding or by a combination of position and roll welding. Roll welding is only acceptable when using a fully automatic welding process. 

Oxyacetylene welding (otherwise known as gas welding) and flash butt welding processes shall not be used. The standard also covers the acceptance standards to be applied to production welds tested to destruction or inspected by radiographic, ultrasonic, or magnetic particle techniques. It includes the inspection procedures for using these techniques .