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Structural Concrete Strut-and-Tie Models for Unified Design

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The strut-and-tie model (STM) is an extension of the limit analysis as applied to continuous media by Drucker, Greenberg, and Prager in 1952, and extended to reinforced concrete members.

 The concept of using the method of STM to the inelastic-reinforcedconcrete analysis was introduced and illustrated for the first time in 1961 by Drucker in his estimate of the load-carrying capacity of a simply supported reinforced concrete beam. The application of the theory of plasticity to the design of members under shear and torsion began in the 1970s, especially by Thürlimann, Nielsen, and others. 

The efforts of Schlaich, Schäfer and their colleagues, and students at the institute of structural design, University of Stuttgart, in the 1980s and 1990s, have established the method in its current form by the generalization of the original truss model concept proposed to treat shear problems by Ritter (1899) and Mörsch (1902, 1906, and 1909) and utilization of the achievements in the area of the lower bound theorem of limit analysis.

 They treated all technical problems including model development, material strength of the different components, and solution scope, in order to achieve a unified and consistent treatment of all regions of structural concrete including those with or without web reinforcement and with or without axial force or pre-strains (tension or compression); all are treated in the same manner.