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A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions

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A convincing argument can be made that joining by mechanical fastening or design feature interlocking, adhesive bonding, or welding, including brazing and soldering, is the most important process in manufacturing and most construction because it usually occurs after a considerable value has already been added to produce the near-net-shaped detail parts for assembly.

 As welding is typically the most technically elaborate, requiring the most skilled practitioners, and accounts for about half of all joining, it almost certainly accounts for much more than half of all joining by value. 

Hence, any problem associated with welding that cannot be avoided or resolved is serious. Major industrial sectors dependent on welding worldwide, as of 2017, included, in a descending order, the following: energy (∼23%), construction (∼20.5%), transportation (∼19.5%), process and others (∼15%), heavy machinery (∼11%), ship building (∼8%), and aerospace and defense (∼3%). Major applications include, in alphabetical order, the following: agricultural equipment; aircraft; airport support equipment; automobiles; bridges; buildings; chemical-processing equipment; earthmoving equipment; food- and beverage-processing equipment; gas, oil, and water pipelines; heavy machines; locomotives and railcard; marine power plants; mining equipment; oil and gas drilling and recovery equipment; petroleum-processing equipment; pharmaceutical-processing equipment; power generation equipment; railroad cars and track equipment; ships; and trucks, buses, and RVs. Although digital electronics has transformed howwe live, welding has enabled ustolive in our modern world.

 Understanding how welding works in terms of various processes and the metallurgy is well treated in books, colleges, and continuing education. Far less well treated is why welding sometimes does not work as expected or needed, what problems can occur, and, most importantly, how to solve problems that do appear. 

What every practitioner of welding needs to know – and often most aggressively seeks – is how to avoid problems if possible and how to resolve problems once they have occurred. A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions: 

Overcoming Technical and MaterialSpecific Issuesis a first! It focuses precisely on what everyone involved with 1 The total global market for welding consumables alone (e.g. stick electrodes and solid and flux-cored wires) exceeded $15B in 2017 and has been forecast to grow by 1.7×over the next decade. As the cost of labor far exceeds the cost of consumables in welding, with consumables typically accounting for only around 5% of the total cost, the total annual value of welding is staggering.

welding wants to know, i.e. how to identify the root cause of a weld-induced or welding-related problem. To be most practical, problems are treated in three ways one may encounter them: (i) by how they manifest themselves (e.g. as distortion or defects); (ii) by where they are located (e.g. in the weld metal or in the surrounding heat-affected zone); and (iii) by the specific material in which certain problems are most apt to occur or exclusively occur (e.g. brittle martensite formation in hardenable steels or sensitization of stainless steels). 

A Practical Guide to Welding Solutionsis the latest, if not the last, of the eight technical books I have written over the past 25 years. It has taken me that long to fully appreciate that engineers solve problems, so they need a book that cuts-to-the-chase by focusing on solving problems with welding, welds, and weldments. 

My deepest thanks to my assistant editor, Lesley Jebaraj, for all the hard work and patience with a finicky author, and to my production editor, Vishnu Priya, for her talents. Thanks too to my editor, Martin Preuss, for his enthusiasm for my idea for this book. Sorry so late. However, as they say: Better late than never!