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Introduction to Precision MACHINE DESIGN and Error Assessment

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The development of precision engineering has greatly increased our living standards. High-precision manufacturing not only offers quality and reliability for conventional products but also opens windows to entirely new products at the standard, meso-, and microscale with new features such as mechatronics, high density function, and high performance. Precision engineering involves development at the forefront of current technology. 

Current advanced technology products are dependent on high-precision manufacturing processes, machines, control technologies, and even nanotechnology. Achieving ultrahigh precision in the manufacture of extremely small devices opens up prospects in several diverse and futuristic fields such as massive computing power, biomedical devices, global personal communication devices, and high-resolution optical devices.

 Precision engineering is a multidisciplinary field that includes machine tool design, materials, machining processes with novel manufacturing methods, metrology, sensors and actuators, microsystems, biomedical applications, and other relevant fields. Precision engineering requires an in-depth understanding of most physical phenomena within the previous disciplines and their effects at the micro- and nanoscale. With the current trend toward highest precision micromachining and assembly systems based on continuous miniaturization and functional integration of products, application areas with enormous market growth are extended to automotive goods, optoelectronics, biomedicine, microchemistry, and consumer goods. Microelectronics needs mechanical interfaces, electrical and optical connections with smaller geometries, and structures and tolerances down to nanometers. 

This book is a result of several years of teaching the various topics that have been covered. It has been written to meet the growing need of mechanical engineers, and others, to understand design process issues with a particular focus on most errors associated with precision design, machine diagnostics, error modeling, and compensation. 

This book is necessary as it carries complementary information to existing books on precision machine design. The various chapters have been written by contributors who are international experts in their respective fields.

 This book is designed to cover key topics for any course in precision machine design. It covers precision machine design principles and related physical aspects, strategies of design for various kinematics concepts and scales, and gives an introduction to most types of errors. This book consists of eight chapters treating specific topics. The content is suitable for students at level 3 and who are pursuing masters in mechanical and aerospace engineering.

 The topics presented in this book are as follows: Machine design principles for serial kinematic machines at the standard and microscale 

 • with an introduction to parallel kinematic machine design Precision control required for machines, actuation, and sensing

 • Introduction to most available errors in machines and their various aspects with emphasis  • on thermal errors Modeling of errors and global budgeting 

• Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to precision engineering and applications. Chapter 2 introduces error measurements with fundamental definitions for measurement characterization and error classification.

 An example of numerical-controlled machine error assessment is discussed in great detail. Chapter 3 is concerned with an in-depth discussion of thermal error sources and transfer, modeling and simulation, compensation, and machine tool diagnostics. 

Chapter 4 introduces principles and strategies to design standard-size precision machines. Techniques are extended to precision micromachines. A number of second-order phenomena that may affect precision are discussed.

This chapter presents description of several case studies. Chapter 5 considers parallel kinematic machines and techniques of design and modeling of workspace and its corresponding dexterity. 

Chapter 6 is concerned with the precision control techniques covering linear systems and nonlinear aspects. It includes fundamentals of motion control and control design strategies. Several case studies are discussed at the end of the chapter. 

Chapter 7 introduces various types of drives, actuators, and sensors required for machines along with several examples. Chapter 8 presents position error compensation modeling, measurements using laser interferometry, and examples and programs for different types of numerical controllers.