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Advanced direct injection combustion engine technologies and development

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Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the development of  direct  injection  internal  combustion  engines.  It  may  have  been  by coincidence  that  direct  injection  technology  was  developed  and  applied almost simultaneously to spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines and light-duty diesel engines in the mid-1990s, but the direct injection technology had been adopted in both engines for the same reason – to increase the efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engines for automotive applications while improving their performance. However, the route to growth and market penetration has proved more haphazard in the case of direct injection SI engines, owing to relatively  high  cost,  lower  than  expected  gains  in  fuel  economy  and  full load  performance,  their  complexity  and  the  requirement  for  a  lean  NO x aftertreatment system. In comparison, the high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine has achieved remarkable commercial success due to its excellent fuel economy and good performance characteristics. 

With heightened concern over the greenhouse gas effect, imminent CO2 emission targets in Europe and Japan, and new fleet vehicle fuel consumption requirements  in  the  US,  direct  injection  gasoline  engines  are  staging  a comeback, mainly through downsized boosted operations in the short term and stratified charge and/or controlled autoignited combustion in the medium term. In the meantime, HSDI and heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines are facing the challenge of meeting ever more stringent emission legislation across the globe, but without deteriorating fuel economy. 

It is therefore timely that the state of the art with respect to current direct injection combustion engines and their development needs should be presented and discussed in a single book so that researchers and practising engineers can ‘stand on the shoulders of giants’ in developing future high-efficiency and low-emission combustion engines.

 One particular strength of this book is its wide-ranging but balanced coverage of the fundamental understanding and applied technologies involved in  DI  combustion  engines  and  the  complementary  contributions  by  both practising engineers and academic researchers. This  book  is  divided  into  two  volumes,  the  first  dealing  with  gasoline and  gas  engines,  and  the  second  discussing  diesel  engines.  

In  Volume  1 . following an overview of the history and principles of high-efficiency direct injection gasoline engines, approaches to achieving better fuel economy from such engines are presented. These include a discussion on stratified charge combustion for part-load operations in Chapter 2, downsized engines through turbocharging in Chapter 3, lean-boost and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) boost for further engine downsizing in Chapters 4 and 5, and autoignition combustion for simultaneous reduction in NO and fuel consumption in Chapter 6.

 Chapter 7 illustrates the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the design and optimisation of direct injection gasoline engines. Chapter 8 reviews direct injection compressed natural gas (CNG) engines that have been developed for commercial vehicles. Chapter 9 has been written to reflect the experience of the world’s most successful bio-fuel market in Brazil. 

Finally Chapter 10 provides an up-to-date summary of advanced optical techniques and their applications to the development of gasoline engines. Volume  2  starts  with  a  survey  of  HSDI  diesel  engines  developed  over the last decade, which sets the scene for the following chapters. 

Chapter 2 provides an overview of state-of-the-art fuel injection systems for light-duty diesel  engines.  The  fundamentals  of  mixture  formation,  combustion  and emissions  from  HSDI  diesel  engines  are  presented  in  Chapter  3.  This  is complemented by a detailed discussion on the effect of multiple injections on  diesel  combustion  and  emissions  in  Chapter  4.  Air  management  and turbocharging  technologies  are  crucial  to  the  diesel  engine’s  performance and  emissions,  and  they  are  the  subject  of  Chapter  5. 

 Chapter  6  presents and  discusses  some  advanced  concepts  for  future  light-duty  HSDI  diesel engines. With the incorporation of a more sophisticated fuel injection system, turbocharging, EGR, and regenerative and active aftertreatment systems in modern  diesel  engines,  Chapter  7  introduces  the  concept  and  example  of a model-based control and engine management approach to illustrate how such a complex system can be controlled and optimised. In  the  second  part  of  volume  2,  following  an  overview  of  current heavy-duty  diesel  engines  in  Chapter  8,  the  evolution  and  development in  the  fuel  injection  system  for  heavy-duty  diesel  engines  is  described  in Chapter 9.

 Chapter 10 gives an excellent presentation on the turbocharging technologies for heavy-duty diesel engines by one of the major turbocharger manufacturers.

 Chapter 11 presents results of a series of experimental and CFD studies carried out on a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine using multiple injections and combustion chamber designs. Part II concludes with a detailed description of the systematic process in the design of heavy-duty diesel engines in Chapter 12.

 Part  III  of  Volume  2  discusses  exhaust  emission  abatement,  diesel combustion diagnostics and modelling. Fuel reforming is an interesting topic in  that  it  offers  the  potential  to  generate  on-board  hydrogen  for  not  only better combustion but also the opportunity for improving the performance of aftertreatment systems, which is the topic of Chapter 13. Aftertreatment systems are now an integral part of a diesel powertrain system. Chapters 14 and 15 provide a summary of current practice and future development needs in light-duty and heavy-duty diesel engine aftertreatment systems. 

Advanced  modelling  and  in-cylinder  optical  techniques  have  made significant contributions to the research and development of direct injection gasoline and diesel engines.

 Chapter 16 provides an up-to-date summary of advanced  optical  techniques  and  their  applications  to  the  development  of direct injection gasoline and diesel engines. Chapter 17 presents the latest research results of low-temperature diesel combustion through the application of advanced in-cylinder optical diagnostics. Finally, the latest developments in the CFD modelling of internal combustion engines are described in Chapter 18. 

This book has been made possible by the dedication of contributing authors to complete their work to the agreed publication schedule, for which I am grateful. In particular, I would like to express my gratitude to the authors who had to endure the extracurricular activities imposed on them.

 I would also like to thank Sheril Leich and Diana Gill (née Leusenrink) of Woodhead Publishing for commissioning the project and their professional support in preparing this book. Finally, I would like to thank my wife and daughter, who put up with my absence during homework and playtimes.